Gary H. Perdew, Ph.D.

Gary H. Perdew, Ph.D.

  • H. Thomas and Dorothy Willits Hallowell Chair in Agricultural Sciences
309A Life Sciences Building
University Park, PA 16802

Areas of Expertise

  • microbiome
  • aryl hydrocarbon receptor
  • dioxin
  • drug metabolism
  • toxicology
  • transcriptional regulation



  • PhD, Food Toxicology, Oregon State University
  • MS, Food Science, University of Maryland
  • BS, Food Science, University of Maryland

Graduate Programs

  • Molecular Cellular Integrative Biosciences (MCIBS)


Molecular mechanism(s) of toxicity, dioxin-mediated signal transduction, regulation of cellular homeostasis by the Ah receptor, Ah receptor-mediated control of gene expression; biochemistry of heat shock protein complexes

Ah receptor-mediated toxicity

We are interested in the long-term health effects of persistent exposure to industrial pollutants. Dioxin and other halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPAHs) are produced during the combustion of organic matter and as a result of bleaching paper. The Ah receptor plays a central role in the biological response to dioxin, which is both carcinogenic and toxic. The Ah receptor is a member of a family of helix-loop-helix/basic region transcriptional factors. Upon binding a HPAH, the Ah receptor translocates to the nucleus and heterodimerizes with Arnt, another helix-loop-helix/basic region protein. This heterodimer is subsequently able to bind to a specific enhancer core sequence in the nucleus, leading to alter transcription of a set of genes. This sequence of events is believed to result in the high level of toxicity observed with many HPAHs and perhaps the tumor-promoting properties of dioxins. We are examining a number of biochemical properties of the Ah receptor, including the level of receptor heterogeneity, composition of the inactive form of the receptor, proteolytic turnover of liganded receptor, and its ability to interact with other transcription factors. We are testing whether structurally diverse Ah receptor ligands can illicit differing gene expression patterns. Ligand-independent function of the Ah receptor in normal cellular processes is also being explored, using a variety of molecular techniques. The critical target genes regulated by the Ah receptor that lead to toxicity are being identified through DNA microarray analysis. Through this series of studies, we hope to gain an understanding of the multiple points of regulation of the Ah receptor and its role in dioxin-mediated toxicity and normal cell biology. Yet another issue that we are addressing is whether the human Ah receptor can mediate toxicity of dioxin in a transgenic mouse model.

Role of the Ah receptor in physiology

The Ah receptor plays an important role in normal cellular physiology; this is best exemplified by the phenotype in mice where the Ah receptor gene has been disrupted. Ah receptor null mice exhibit a number of defects, such as; low productive success, abnormal vasculature in the liver, small liver size and altered immune system. We are interested in how the activity of the Ah receptor is regulated under normal physiologic conditions; this is being explored by screening certain endogenous and dietary chemicals for their ability to activate the Ah receptor. A number of biochemical pathways important in human health are modulated by activation or repression of the Ah receptor. 

We are perhaps the lead laboratory examining differences in the human versus rodent Ah receptor, critical in understanding whether mouse studies extrapolate to humans. In particular, we identified abundant tryptophan metabolites produced by the gut microbiome that are capable of preferentially activating the human Ah receptor. We have determined the critical tryptophan metabolites that are absorbed in the gut and are examining the bacteria that produce these metabolites and how the diet can modulate their production. These studies have profound implications in how Ah receptor activity is systemically induced and impact numerous pathways that influence overall health.

Because of the differences in human Ah receptor activity we are developing a mouse model that expresses the human AHR and blocks expression of the mouse Ah receptor.

A second major area of investigation studies whether the Ah receptor is an important drug target to treat cancer. In particular, we are examining the ability of Ah receptor antagonists to alter metabolism and metastatic potential in head and neck cancer.

Lab members

Dr. Iain Murray - Research Assistant Professor

Dr. Fangcong Dong- Post-doctoral fellow

Denise Coslo- Research Technician

Kelly Wagner- Technician/lab manager

Brandon Yusko, PhD graduate student

Debopriya Chakraborty, PhD graduate student

Dhwani Patel, PhD graduate student

Ethan Morgan, PhD graduate student- co-advised with Andrew Patterson

Lab Alumni (partial list)

Hollie Swanson- Professor- University of Kentucky
Murray Whitelaw- Professor - University of Adelaide
Norman Nord- Professor and Head- University of Oklahoma
Steve Levine- Senior Regulatory Manager- Bayer
David Carlson- FDA, drug approval division
Brian Meyer- Senior Scientist- Merck Laboratories
Mohan Kumar - Scientist- RheoGene, Inc.
Peter Long- Patent Attorney
John Petrulis- Associate Directory Toxicology- Alnylam Pharmaceuticals
Preeti Ramadoss - Senior Technical Writer University of Texas MD Anderson
Brett Hollingshead - Senior Scientist- Pfizer 

Chris Chairo- Staff Scientist Penn State University
Luis Morales- Computer technical support Altoona hospital

Jennifer Schroeder- Assistant Professor YoungHarris College
Brett DiNatale- Senior Vice President, Head of Commercial Analytic; Solutions at Precision Xtract
Colin Flaveny- Principal Scientist Pfizer
Rushang Patel- MD Oncology; AdventHealth

Troy Hubbard-FDA Senior Staff Fellow


Species differences in specific ligand-binding affinity and activation of AHR: The biological basis for calculation of relative effective potencies and toxic equivalence factors
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Eaton, David L., Simon, Ted W., Kaminski, Norbert E., Perdew, Gary H., Nebert, Daniel W., 2024

Immune cell-intrinsic Ah receptor facilitates the expression of antimicrobial REG3G in the small intestine
FASEB Journal, Chakraborty, Debopriya, Coslo, Denise M., Murray, Iain Alexander, Vijay, Anitha, Patterson, Andrew David, Perdew, Gary H., 2024

Third generation quinoline-3-carboxamide transcriptional disrupter of HDAC4, HIF-1α, and MEF-2 signaling for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer
Prostate, Isaacs, John T., Dalrymple, Susan L., Antony, Lizamma, Marc Rosen, David, Coleman, Ilsa M., Nelson, Peter S., Kostova, Maya, Murray, Iain A., Perdew, Gary H., Denmeade, Samuel R., Akinboye, Emmanuel S., Brennen, W. Nathaniel, 2023

Induction of AHR Signaling in Response to the Indolimine Class of Microbial Stress Metabolites
Metabolites, Patel, Dhwani, Murray, Iain A., Dong, Fangcong, Annalora, Andrew J., Gowda, Krishne, Coslo, Denise M., Krzeminski, Jacek, Koo, Imhoi, Hao, Fuhua, Amin, Shantu G., Marcus, Craig B., Patterson, Andrew D., Perdew, Gary H., 2023

Alpha-tocopherylquinone differentially modulates claudins to enhance intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier via AhR and Nrf2 pathways
Cell Reports, Ganapathy, A, Saha, K, Wang, A, Arumugam, P, Dharmaprakash, V, Yochum, Gregory, Koltun, Walter, Nighot, M, Perdew, Gary H., Thompson, T, Ma, Thomas, Nighot, Prashant, 2023

Molecular networking identifies an AHR-modulating benzothiazole from white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)
Journal of Functional Foods, Chen, Xiaoling, Patterson, Andrew D., Perdew, Gary H., Murray, Iain A., Kellogg, Joshua J., 2023

Complex chemical signals dictate Ah receptor activation through the gut-lung axis
FASEB Journal, Dong, Fangcong, Murray, Iain A., Annalora, Andrew, Coslo, Denise M., Desai, Dhimant, Gowda, Krishne, Yang, Jian, Wang, Dingbowen, Koo, Imhoi, Hao, Fuhua, Amin, Shantu G., Patterson, Andrew D., Marcus, Craig, Perdew, Gary H., 2023

The Ah Receptor from Toxicity to Therapeutics: Report from the 5th AHR Meeting at Penn State University, USA, June 2022
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Perdew, Gary H., Esser, Charlotte, Snyder, Megan, Sherr, David H., van den Bogaard, Ellen H., McGovern, Karen, Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M., Coumoul, Xavier, Patterson, Andrew D., 2023

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation affects nitrergic neuronal survival and delays intestinal motility in mice
Toxicological Sciences, Vijay, A, Boyle, N, Kumar, S, Perdew, Gary H., Srinivasan, S, Patterson, Andrew, 2023

Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation Coordinates Mouse Small Intestinal Epithelial Cell Programming
Laboratory Investigation, Zhou, Xiaoliang, Chakraborty, Debopriya, Murray, Iain A., Coslo, Denise, Kehs, Zoe, Vijay, Anitha, Ton, Carolyn, Desai, Dhimant, Amin, Shantu G., Patterson, Andrew D., Perdew, Gary H., 2023

Lead optimization of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands for treatment of inflammatory skin disorders
Biochemical Pharmacology, Rikken, Gijs, Smith, Kayla J., van den Brink, Noa J.M., Smits, Jos P.H., Gowda, Krishne, Alnemri, Angela, Kuzu, Gulsum E., Murray, Iain Alexander, Lin, Jyh ming, Smits, Jos G.A., van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M., Amin, Shantu G., Perdew, Gary H., van den Bogaard, Ellen H., 2023

Contribution of Circulating Host and Microbial Tryptophan Metabolites Toward Ah Receptor Activation
International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Morgan, Ethan W., Dong, Fangcong, Annalora, Andrew J., Murray, Iain A., Wolfe, Trenton, Erickson, Reece, Gowda, Krishne, Amin, Shantu G., Petersen, Kristina S., Kris-Etherton, Penny M., Marcus, Craig B., Walk, Seth T., Patterson, Andrew D., Perdew, Gary H., 2023

Endogenous Tryptophan-Derived Ah Receptor Ligands are Dissociated from CYP1A1/1B1-Dependent Negative-Feedback
International Journal of Tryptophan Research, Dong, Fangcong, Annalora, Andrew J., Murray, Iain A., Tian, Yuan, Marcus, Craig B., Patterson, Andrew D., Perdew, Gary H., 2023

Alpha-tocopherylquinone-mediated activation of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor regulates the production of inflammation-inducing cytokines and ameliorates intestinal inflammation
Mucosal Immunology, Saha, Kushal, Subramenium Ganapathy, Ashwinkumar, Wang, Alexandra, Arumugam, Priya, Michael Morris, Nathan, Harris, Leonard, Yochum, Gregory, Koltun, Walter, Perdew, Gary H., Nighot, Meghali, Ma, Thomas, Nighot, Prashant, 2023

AHR is a master regulator of diverse pathways in endogenous metabolism
Scientific Reports, Granados, J, Falah, K, Koo, Imhoi, Morgan, E, Perdew, Gary H., Patterson, A, Jamshidi, N, Nigam, S, 2022

Early Life Short-Term Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyl 126 in Mice Leads to Metabolic Dysfunction and Microbiota Changes in Adulthood
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Tian, Yuan, Rimal, B, Gui, W, Koo, Imhoi, Yokoyama, Shigetoshi, Perdew, Gary H., Patterson, A, 2022

Multi-Omics Strategies for Investigating the Microbiome in Toxicology Research
Toxicological Sciences, Morgan, E, Perdew, Gary H., Patterson, A, 2022

Gestational Insulin Resistance Is Mediated by the Gut Microbiome–Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Axis
Gastroenterology, Priyadarshini, Medha, Navarro, Guadalupe, Reiman, Derek J., Sharma, Anukriti, Xu, Kai, Lednovich, Kristen, Manzella, Christopher R., Khan, Md Wasim, Garcia, Mariana Salas, Allard, Sarah, Wicksteed, Barton, Chlipala, George E., Szynal, Barbara, Bernabe, Beatriz Penalver, Maki, Pauline M., Gill, Ravinder K., Perdew, Gary H., Gilbert, Jack, Dai, Yang, Layden, Brian T., 2022

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor activates ceramide biosynthesis in mice contributing to hepatic lipogenesis
Toxicology, Liu, Q, Zhang, L, Allman, E, Hubbard, T, Murray, Iain A., Hao, F, Tian, Yuan, Gui, W, Nichols, R, Smith, Philip B., Anitha, M, Perdew, Gary, Patterson, Andrew D., 2021

The Enigma of AHR Activation in the Skin: Interplay among Ligands, Metabolism, and Bioavailability
Journal of Investigative Dermatology, van den Bogaard, Ellen H., Perdew, Gary H., 2021

How ah receptor ligand specificity became important in understanding its physiological function
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Murray, Iain A., Perdew, Gary H., 2020

β-Naphthoflavone activation of the Ah receptor alleviates irradiation-induced intestinal injury in mice
Antioxidants, Zhou, Xiaoliang, Li, Deguan, Xu, Wenqing, Zhang, Heng, Wang, Hao, Perdew, Gary H., 2020

Intestinal microbiota-derived tryptophan metabolites are predictive of Ah receptor activity
Gut Microbes, Dong, Fangcong, Hao, Fuhua, Murray, Iain A., Smith, Philip B., Koo, Imhoi, Tindall, Alyssa, Kris-Etherton, Penny, Gowda, Krishne, Amin, Shantu G., Patterson, Andrew D., Perdew, Gary, 2020

Targeting the pregnane X receptor using microbial metabolite mimicry
EMBO Molecular Medicine, Dvořák, Zdeněk, Kopp, Felix, Costello, Cait M., Kemp, Jazmin S., Li, Hao, Vrzalová, Aneta, Štěpánková, Martina, Bartoňková, Iveta, Jiskrová, Eva, Poulíková, Karolína, Vyhlídalová, Barbora, Nordstroem, Lars U., Karunaratne, Chamini V., Ranhotra, Harmit S., Mun, Kyu Shik, Naren, Anjaparavanda P., Murray, Iain A., Perdew, Gary H., Brtko, Julius, Toporova, Lucia, Schön, Arne, Wallace, William G., Walton, William G., Redinbo, Matthew R., Sun, Katherine, Beck, Amanda, Kortagere, Sandhya, Neary, Michelle C., Chandran, Aneesh, Vishveshwara, Saraswathi, Cavalluzzi, Maria M., Lentini, Giovanni, Cui, Julia Yue, Gu, Haiwei, March, John C., Chatterjee, Shirshendu, Matson, Adam, Wright, Dennis, Flannigan, Kyle L., Hirota, Simon A., Sartor, Ryan Balfour, Mani, Sridhar, 2020

PCB126 blocks the thermogenic beiging response of adipocytes
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Gourronc, Francoise A., Perdew, Gary H., Robertson, Larry W., Klingelhutz, Aloysius J., 2020

Selective Ah receptor modulators attenuate NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol uptake through repression of SREBP-2 transcriptional activity
Laboratory Investigation, Muku, G, Kusnadi, A, Kuzu, G, Tanos, R, Murray, Iain A., Gowda, Krishne, Amin, Shantu, Perdew, Gary, 2020

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor as a mediator of host-microbiota interplay
Gut Microbes, Dong, Fangcong, Perdew, Gary H., 2020

Metatranscriptomic analysis of the mouse gut microbiome response to the persistent organic pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran
Metabolites, Nichols, Renea, Zhang, Jian, Cai, Jingjing, Murray, Iain A., Koo, Imhoi, Smith, Philip B., Perdew, Gary H., Patterson, Andrew D., 2019

Activation of the Ah Receptor Modulates Gastrointestinal Homeostasis and the Intestinal Microbiome
Current Pharmacology Reports, Muku, Gulsum E., Murray, Iain A., Perdew, Gary H., 2019

Selective Ah Receptor Ligands Mediate Enhanced SREBP1 Proteolysis to Restrict Lipogenesis in Sebocytes
Toxicological Sciences, Muku, G, Blazanin, N, Dong, F, Smith, Philip B., Thiboutot, Diane, Gowda, Krishne, Amin, Shantu, Murray, Iain A., Perdew, Gary, 2019

Microbiota Metabolism Promotes Synthesis of the Human Ah Receptor Agonist 2,8-Dihydroxyquinoline
Journal of Proteome Research, Hubbard, T, Liu, Q, Murray, Iain A., Dong, F, Miller, 3rd, C, Miller, Charles, Smith, Philip B., Gowda, Krishne, Lin, Jyh Ming, Amin, Shantu, Patterson, Andrew D., Perdew, Gary H., 2019

Isolation and Identification of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Modulators in White Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Tian, Yuan, Gui, Wei, Smith, Philip B., Koo, Imhoi, Murray, Iain A., Cantorna, Margherita, Perdew, Gary H., Patterson, Andrew D., 2019

Urolithin a is a dietary microbiota-derived human aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist
Metabolites, Muku, Gulsum E., Murray, Iain A., Espín, Juan C., Perdew, Gary H., 2018

Old receptor, new tricks—The ever-expanding universe of aryl hydrocarbon receptor functions. Report from the 4th AHR meeting, 29–31 August 2018 in Paris, France
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Esser, Charlotte, Lawrence, B. Paige, Sherr, David H., Perdew, Gary H., Puga, Alvaro, Barouki, Robert, Coumoul, Xavier, 2018

Structural and Functional Analysis of the Gut Microbiome for Toxicologists
Current protocols in toxicology / editorial board, Mahin D. Maines (editor-in-chief) ... [et al.], Nichols, R, Cai, J, Murray, Iain A., Koo, Imhoi, Smith, Philip B., Perdew, Gary H., Patterson, Andrew D., 2018

Metabolomics Reveals Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation Induces Liver and Mammary Gland Metabolic Dysfunction in Lactating Mice
Journal of Proteome Research, Belton, K, Tian, Yuan, Zhang, L, Anitha, M, Smith, Philip B., Perdew, Gary H., Patterson, Andrew D., 2018

Allelic variants of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor differentially influence UVB-mediated skin inflammatory responses in SKH1 mice
Toxicology, Smith, Kayla J., Murray, Iain A., Boyer, Jacob A., Perdew, Gary H., 2018

Molecular Regulation of Carcinogenesis: Friend and Foe
Toxicological Sciences, Patterson, Andrew D., Gonzalez, Frank, Perdew, Gary, Peters, Jeffrey, 2018

Mechanisms: Xenobiotic Receptor-Mediated Toxicity, Perdew, G. H., Murray, I. A., Patterson, A. D., Peters, J. M., 2018

Modulation of Soluble Receptor Signaling by Coregulators, Flaveny, C., Kumar, M., Perdew, G. H., 2018

Assessment of Ah receptor transcriptional activity mediated by halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs) in human and mouse cell systems
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, Organtini, K, Hubbard, T, Perdew, Gary, Dorman, F, 2017

Ligand-mediated cytoplasmic retention of the Ah receptor inhibits macrophage-mediated acute inflammatory responses
Laboratory Investigation, Muku, G, Lahoti, T, Murray, Iain A., Podolsky, M, Smith, K, Hubbard, T, Kuzu, G, Gowda, Krishne, Amin, Shantu G., Perdew, Gary, 2017

Ah receptor activation potentiates neutrophil chemoattractant (C-X-C Motif) ligand 5 expression in keratinocytes and skin
Toxicological Sciences, Smith, K, Boyer, J, Muku, G, Murray, I, Gowda, Krishne, Desai, D, Amin, S, Glick, A, Perdew, Gary, 2017

Dietary broccoli impacts microbial community structure and attenuates chemically induced colitis in mice in an Ah receptor dependent manner
Journal of Functional Foods, Hubbard, Troy D., Murray, Iain A., Nichols, Robert G., Cassel, Kaitlyn, Podolsky, Michael, Kuzu, Guray, Tian, Yuan, Smith, Phillip, Kennett, Mary J., Patterson, Andrew D., Perdew, Gary H., 2017

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibitors activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Moyer, Benjamin J., Rojas, Itzel Y., Murray, Iain A., Lee, Seokwon, Hazlett, Haley F., Perdew, Gary H., Tomlinson, Craig R., 2017

Ligand activation of the Ah receptor contributes to gastrointestinal homeostasis
Current Opinion in Toxicology, Murray, Iain A., Perdew, Gary, 2017

Regulation of cytochrome P450 2B10 (CYP2B10) expression in liver by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ modulation of SP1 promoter occupancy
Journal of Biological Chemistry, Koga, Takayuki, Yao, Pei Li, Goudarzi, Maryam, Murray, Iain A., Balandaram, Gayathri, Gonzalez, Frank J., Perdew, Gary H., Fornace, Albert J., Peters, Jeffrey M., 2016

Divergent Ah Receptor Ligand Selectivity during Hominin Evolution
Molecular Biology and Evolution, Hubbard, Troy D., Murray, Iain A., Bisson, William H., Sullivan, Alexis P., Sebastian, Aswathy, Perry, George H., Jablonski, Nina G., Perdew, Gary H., 2016

Expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor contributes to the establishment of intestinal microbial community structure in mice
Scientific Reports, Murray, Iain A., Nichols, Robert G., Zhang, Limin, Patterson, Andrew D., Perdew, Gary H., 2016

A novel AhR ligand, 2AI, protects the retina from environmental stress
Scientific Reports, Gutierrez, Mark A., Davis, Sonnet S., Rosko, Andrew, Nguyen, Steven M., Mitchell, Kylie P., Mateen, Samiha, Neves, Joana, Garcia, Thelma Y., Mooney, Shaun, Perdew, Gary H., Hubbard, Troy D., Lamba, Deepak A., Ramanathan, Arvind, 2016

Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ suppresses liver tumorigenesis in hepatitis B transgenic mice
Toxicology, Balandaram, Gayathri, Kramer, Lance R., Kang, Boo Hyon, Murray, Iain A., Perdew, Gary H., Gonzalez, Frank J., Peters, Jeffrey M., 2016

Hepatic aryl hydrocarbon receptor attenuates fibroblast growth factor 21 expression
Journal of Biological Chemistry, Girer, Nathaniel G., Murray, Iain A., Omiecinski, Curtis J., Perdew, Gary H., 2016

Selective programming of CCR10+ innate lymphoid cells in skin-draining lymph nodes for cutaneous homeostatic regulation
Nature Immunology, Yang, Jie, Hu, Shaomin, Zhao, Luming, Kaplan, Daniel H., Perdew, Gary H., Xiong, Na, 2016

Expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor is necessary to maintain intestinal host-microbe homeostasis.
Scientific reports, Murray, I, Nichols, R, Zhang, L, Patterson, A, Perdew, Gary, 2016

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation synergistically induces lipopolysaccharide-mediated expression of proinflammatory chemokine (c-c motif) ligand 20
Toxicological Sciences, Lahoti, Tejas S., Boyer, Jacob A., Kusnadi, Ann, Muku, Gulsum E., Murray, Iain A., Perdew, Gary H., 2015

Adaptation of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor to sense microbiota-derived indoles
Scientific Reports, Hubbard, Troy D., Murray, Iain A., Bisson, William H., Lahoti, Tejas S., Gowda, Krishne, Amin, Shantu G., Patterson, Andrew D., Perdew, Gary H., 2015

Metabolomics Reveals that Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation by Environmental Chemicals Induces Systemic Metabolic Dysfunction in Mice
Environmental Science & Technology, Zhang, Limin, Hatzakis, Emmanuel, Nichols, Robert G., Hao, Ruixin, Correll, Jared, Smith, Philip B., Chiaro, Christopher R., Perdew, Gary H., Patterson, Andrew D., 2015

Persistent organic pollutants modify gut microbiota–host metabolic homeostasis in mice through aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation
Environmental Health Perspectives, Zhang, Limin, Nichols, Robert G., Correll, Jared, Murray, Iain A., Tanaka, Naoki, Smith, Philip B., Hubbard, Troy D., Sebastian, Aswathy, Albert, Istvan, Hatzakis, Emmanuel, Gonzalez, Frank J., Perdew, Gary H., Patterson, Andrew D., 2015

Differential regulation of Th17 and T regulatory cell differentiation by aryl hydrocarbon receptor dependent xenobiotic response element dependent and independent pathways
Toxicological Sciences, Mohinta, Sonia, Kannan, Arun K., Gowda, Krishne, Amin, Shantu G., Perdew, Gary H., August, Avery, 2015

Genetic and pharmacological analysis identifies a physiological role for the AHR in epidermal differentiation
Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Van Den Bogaard, Ellen H., Podolsky, Michael A., Smits, Jos P., Cui, Xiao, John, Christian, Gowda, Krishne, Desai, Dhimant, Amin, Shantu G., Schalkwijk, Joost, Perdew, Gary H., Glick, Adam B., 2015

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands in cancer: Friend and foe
Nature Reviews Cancer, Murray, Iain A., Patterson, Andrew D., Perdew, Gary H., 2014

A Structural Switch Between Agonist and Antagonist Bound Conformations for a Ligand-Optimized Model of the Human Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligand Binding Domain
Biology, Perkins, Arden, Phillips, Jessica L., Kerkvliet, Nancy I., Tanguay, Robert L., Perdew, Gary H., Kolluri, Siva K., Bisson, William H., 2014

In vivo effects of the pure aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist GNF-351 after oral administration are limited to the gastrointestinal tract
British Journal of Pharmacology, Fang, Zhong Ze, Krausz, Kristopher W., Nagaoka, Kenjiro, Tanaka, Naoki, Gowda, Krishne, Amin, Shantu G., Perdew, Gary H., Gonzalez, Frank J., 2014

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonism attenuates growth factor expression, proliferation, and migration in fibroblast-like synoviocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Lahoti, Tejas S., Hughes, Jarod M., Kusnadi, Ann, John, Kaarthik, Zhu, Bokai, Murray, Iain A., Gowda, Krishne, Peters, Jeffrey M., Amin, Shantu G., Perdew, Gary H., 2014

Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent signaling by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) in keratinocytes
Carcinogenesis, Borland, Michael G., Krishnan, Prasad, Lee, Christina, Albrecht, Prajakta P., Shan, Weiwei, Bility, Moses T., Marcus, Craig B., Lin, Jyh M., Amin, Shantu, Gonzalez, Frank J., Perdew, Gary H., Peters, Jeffrey M., 2014

The Ah receptor regulates growth factor expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines
Molecular Carcinogenesis, John, Kaarthik, Lahoti, Tejas S., Wagner, Kelly, Hughes, Jarod M., Perdew, Gary H., 2014

Mode of action and dose-response framework analysis for receptor-mediated toxicity: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor as a case study
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, Budinsky, R. A., Schrenk, D., Simon, T., Van Den Berg, M., Reichard, J. F., Silkworth, J. B., Aylward, L. L., Brix, A., Gasiewicz, T., Kaminski, N., Perdew, G., Starr, T. B., Walker, N. J., Rowlands, J. C., 2014