K. Sandeep Prabhu PhD
- Ph.D., Biochemistry, VMSRF-University of Mysore , India
- M.Sc., Biochemistry, University of Mysore , India
- B.Sc., Biochemistry, Botany & Zoology, University of Mysore , India
Emily Finch, BS (Graduate Student- Immunology/Infectious Disease)
Hunter Fraker Undergrad Student (Schreyer Honor's College)
Brenita Jenkins, MS (Graduate Student- Immunology/Infectious Disease)
Dr. Naveen Kaushal, PhD (Post-doctoral Research Scholar)
Dr. Avinash Kudva, PhD (Post-doctoral Research Scholar)
Chang Liao, MS (Graduate Student- Pathobiology)
Dr. Vivek Narayan, PhD (Post-doctoral Research Scholar)
Dr. K. Sandeep Prabhu, PhD (Principal Investigator)
Ashley Shay, BS (Graduate Student- Molecular Medicine)
Nicole Wilski, Undergrad Student
Shakira Nelson, BS (PhD-Pathobiology); CPFP Post-doctoral Fellow, NCI, Bethesda, MD
Sara Farwell (BS Student), Graduate Student, Lehigh University
Steven Cornelius (BS Honors Student); MD Student, Penn State Hershey College of Medicine
Kayleigh McCormick (BS Honors Student); DVM Student, UPENN
Dr. Ujjawal H. Gandhi, M.B.,B.S. PhD (PhD Molecular Toxicology): Medical Resident, NYU
Dr. Tejo Nagaraja, PhD (Professor, Thapar University, India) DBT-CREST Visting Professor
Dr. Uma Palempalli (Associate Professor, SV University for Women, Tirupati, India) DBT-CREST Visiting Professor
Dr. Ravindra C. Kodihalli (Post-doctoral Scholar) MIT, Cambridge
Dr. Anil Kotha, PhD (Post-doctoral Scholar) UT San Antonio, TX
Kelsey Hafer (BS Schreyer's Honors Student); DVM Student, U Penn
Amanda Tuchinsky (BS Schreyer's Honors Student); MD Student, Jefferson Med School
Pranav Maddali, BS (Research Tech); PhD Student; RPI- Albany, NY
Dr. Christopher Chiaro, PhD (Post-doctoral Research Scholar)
Dr. Ryan J. Arner, PhD (Research Associate)-DETRA-PSU Program Staff
Dr. Parisa Kalantari (Post-doc) Currently Post-doc @ UMass, Worcester
Pradeep Bodumalla (MS-Pathobiology)
Dr. Hema Vunta (PhD-Pathobiology) Currently- Lecturer, College of Pharmacy, Cincinnati, OH
Dr. K. Muralidhar (Visiting Professor)- Professor of Zoology, University of Delhi, India
Dr. Uma Palempalli (Visiting Professor)- Associate Professor, Tirupati, India
Stephanie Larson (MS- Pathobiology)Currently DO Student-Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine
Jessica Stahle (BS- Honors) Currently- DVM Student at U Penn
Deepa Bhat (BS Honors) Currently- Scientist, FBI
Katie Miro (BS Honors) Currently MD student; Temple
VB SC 514 (NUTRN 514) Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes (Alternate Sp semester)
The course provides an in-depth coverage of how fatty acids are metabolized in eukaryotes by various enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. The course will emphasize on the physiological roles of these fatty acid oxidation products in general health, inflammation, and reproduction along with their cellular basis of action via receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. (3 Credits)
VB SC 451 Immunotoxicology of Drugs and Chemicals (Coordinator: Dr. Prabhu/Co-instructor: Dr. Na Xiong) (Fa semester)
The immunotoxicology course will focus primarily on the effects of environmental chemicals, therapeutics, and recreational drugs on the immune system. Immunomodulatory mechanisms will be examined at systemic, cellular and molecular levels. Discussions will include theory, principles, and methodology and key issues in immunotoxicology. (3 Credits)
VB SC 330 Introduction to Molecular Pharmacology (Coordinator: Dr. Adam Glick/Co-instructor: Dr. Prabhu) (Sp Semester)
Molecular interactions between drugs and their tissue receptors and possible modifications of drugs to target different receptors will be discussed. Drugs used to treat infectious disease, cardiovascular disease, immune modulators, and anti-cancer drugs will be examined for their molecular interactions. Students will understand the complexities of new drug design and development from the initial stages of laboratory development to final approval for use by the Food and Drug Administration. (3 Credits)
Regulation of gene expression by oxidative, glycative, and hypertonic stressors; Molecular mechanisms underlying the antioxidant role of selenium; Lipid biochemistry-prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and oxidized fatty acids as nuclear receptor ligands.
Regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression by oxidative stress-dependent mechanisms and the role of selenium in macrophages
Respiratory burst and the reactions of the electron transport system in mitochondria have the ability to produce a variety of oxygen and nitrogen radicals, commonly called reactive oxygen (ROS) or nitrogen (RNS) species by different mechanisms. Although these ROS/RNS play an important role in the defense of the host, increased production of these radicals is thought to be one of the major mechanisms accompanying inflammation, as seen in atherosclerosis, cancer, asthma, Alzheimer's disease and arthritis. It is increasingly recognized that many cellular signaling pathways are oxidation-sensitive, and that ROS may provide a common link between proinflammatory pathways and pathologies. Extensive evidence from many laboratories, including ours, indicates that ROS can regulate gene expression by modulating a large number of redox-sensitive transcription factors. Therefore, the antioxidant capacity of immune cells (e.g., macrophages) is very important to maintain optimal overall redox or oxidative tone. This is accomplished by a multi-tier system in which selenium (Se) in the form of Se-glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases, and other selenoproteins. However, the exact mechanism of antioxidant protection by Se is still unclear.
Current projects in this area:
1) The regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a prototypical proinflammatory gene, by Se. We are trying to understand how Se abrogates the endotoxin- and cytokine-mediated COX-2 expression by interfering with the activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB). These studies are mainly performed in bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice that are maintained on a Se-deficient and Se-supplemented diets.
2) Statins are drugs used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and these have been hypothesized to decrease the expression of selenoproteins, which might explain some of the side-effects (like myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and depression) of these promising drugs. We are trying to understand the role of Se in alleviating these side effects, the molecular effects that are commonly seen in in-vitro culture systems, and whether these changes have a “signature pattern” like those observed during Se deficiency.
3) Increased oxidative stress leads to increased activation of NF-kB, which can modulate several transcription factors by a mechanism known as “transcription factor squelching”. Using proteomic and genetic approaches, we are making an attempt to identify these NF-kB interacting proteins. One such example is the interaction of p65 subunit with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- a and its role on the expression of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in the hepatocytes.
4) The role of selenium in HIV/AIDS: There is epidemiological data indicating the beneficial role of selenium in HIV/AIDS. We are trying to understand the mechanism of action of selenium in HIV/AIDS via different mechanisms. Our data suggests that selenoproteins are critical regulators of proviral transcription.
Through these studies, we hope to gain understanding of the anti-oxidant property of Se and its role as a therapeutic agent in human and animal health.
Isolation and characterization of endogenous ligands for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)
The PPARs have enjoyed the spotlight for many reasons. These transcription factors are ligand-inducible nuclear receptors that modulate gene expression in response to a broad spectrum of compounds. The recognition that PPARs are indeed nuclear receptors for polyunsaturated fatty acids, some eicosanoids and also lipid-lowering and antidiabetic drugs, has opened many exciting avenues of research and drug discovery. Recent studies on the PPAR function have extended the role of these transcription factors beyond energy homeostasis to master gene in adipogenesis and also determinants in inflammation control. Using our expertise in the large-scale synthesis of oxidized lipids, we are involved in a collaborative project with the Molecular Toxicology Group in the Department to evaluate some of the promising compounds as ligands for nuclear receptors, including PPARs.
Targeting of leukemia stem cells: In collaboration with Dr. Robert Paulson
Please see the video:
Ravindra KC, Narayan V, Lushington GH, Peterson BR, Prabhu KS. Targeting of Histone Acetyltransferase p300 by Cyclopentenone Prostaglandin Δ(12)-PGJ(2) through Covalent Binding to Cys(1438).Chem Res Toxicol. 2012 Feb 20;25(2):337-47.
Hegde S, Kaushal N, Ravindra KC, Chiaro C, Hafer KT, Gandhi UH, Thompson JT, Vanden Heuvel JP, Kennett MJ, Hankey P, Paulson RF, Prabhu KS. Delta12-prostaglandin J3, an omega-3 fatty acid-derived metabolite, selectively ablates leukemia stem cells in mice. Blood. 2011 Oct 3. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21967980 (Ney, P: News and Views, Blood, Dec 22, 2011)UH Gandhi, N Kaushal, KC Ravindra, S Hegde, SM Nelson, V Narayan, H Vunta, RF Paulson, KS Prabhu (2011) Selenoprotein-dependent Up-regulation of Hematopoietic Prostaglandin D2 Synthase in Macrophages Is Mediated through the Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR)g. J. Biol. Chem. 286:27471-82.
S. Nelson, X. Lei, and K. S. Prabhu (2011) Selenium status regulates the expression of alternative activation markers in macrophages. J. Nutr. [E-Pub ahead of print]
N. Kaushal, S. Hegde, R. F. Paulson, and K. S. Prabhu (2011) The regulation of erythropoiesis by selenium. Antiox. Redox Signal. 14:1403-12.
M. Ray, S Yu, C. B. Wilson, N. Kaushal, K. S. Prabhu, and P. Hankey (2011) Regulation of TLR4 signaling in macrophages by the Ron receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand, MSP. J. Immunol. 185:7309-16.
V. Narayan, K.C. Ravindra, C. Chiaro, D. Carey, B. B. Aggarwal, A. J. Henderson, and K. S. Prabhu (2011) Celastrol inhibits tat-dependent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription and replication. J. Mol. Biol. 410(5):972-83.
D. Desai, N. Kaushal, R. J. Arner, U. H. Gandhi, C. D’Souza, K. El-Bayoumy, S. G. Amin, and K. S. Prabhu (2010) Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of selenium-derivatives of celecoxib. Chem. Biol. Interact. 188:446-56.
Y-C Chen, D. Sosnoski, U. H. Gandhi, L. Novinger, K. S. Prabhu*, and A. M. Mastro* (2009 Selenium modifies the osteoblast inflammatory stress response to bone metastatic breast cancer. Carcinogenesis. 30(11):1941-8 (*Corresponding authors)
D Jiang, C. Chiaro, P. Maddali, K.S. Prabhu, and D. G. Peterson (2009) Identification of hydroxycinnamic acid –maillard reaction products in low-moisture baking model systems. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57: 9932-43
Kalantari P, Narayan V, Henderson AJ, and Prabhu KS (2009) 15-deoxy-PGJ2 inhibits HIV-1 transactivating protein, Tat, through covalent modification. FASEB J. March 19
Stahle JA, Vunta H, Reddy CC, and Prabhu KS (2009) Regulation of expression of apolipoprotein A-I by selenium status in hepatocytes. Eur. J. Nutr. March 18
Palempalli UD, Gandhi U, Kalantari P, Vunta H, Arner RJ, Narayan V, Ravindran A, and Prabhu KS (2009). Gambogic acid covalently modifies IkB-kinase-b subunit to mediate suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-kB in macrophages. Biochem. J. 419 (2): 401-409.
DeKeyser JG, Stagliano MC, Auerbach SS, Prabhu KS, Jones AD, and Omiecinski CJ (2009) Di(2-ehtylhexyl)phthalate is a highly potent agonist for the human constitutive androstane receptor splice variant, CAR2. Mol. Pharmacol. Feb 11
Hendricks III GL, Hadley JA, Krzysik-Walker SM, Prabhu KS, Vasilatos-Younken R, Ramachandran R (2009) Unique profile of chicken adiponectin, a predominantly heavy molecular weight multimer, and relationship to visceral adiposity. Endocrinology. March 19
Desai A, Konda VR, Darland G, Austin M, Prabhu KS, Bland J, Caroll B, and Tripp ML (2009) META060 inhibits multiple kinases in the NF-kB pathway and suppresses LPS-mediated inflammation in-vitro and in-vivo. Inflamm. Res. January
Kalantari P, Narayan V, Natarajan SK, Muralidhar K, Gandhi UH, Vunta H, Henderson AJ, Prabhu KS. Thioredoxin reductase-1 negatively regulates HIV-1 transactivating protein Tat-dependent transcription in human macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2008 Oct 3. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 18835810 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Vunta H, Belda BJ, Arner RJ, Channa Reddy C, Vanden Heuvel JP, Sandeep Prabhu K. Selenium attenuates pro-inflammatory gene expression in macrophages. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 May 15. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 18481333 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
NIH (NIDDK, NCI, NCCAM), AICR, Campbell Foundation, and College of Ag Sci, Penn State University
Conferences in 2012:
Experimental Biology, San Diego, CA
AICR, Washington, D.C.
Conferences in 2011:
Experimental Biology, Washington, D. C.
Eicosanoid Research Foundation, Seattle, WA
Trace Element Society Meeting, Enshi, China
AICR Meeting, Washington, D. C.
Conferences in 2010:
1) Experimental Biology 2010, Anaheim, CA- Shakira Nelson, Recipient of the ASBMB Graduate Travel Award
2) Graduate Exhibition, Penn State University
3) International Symposium on Selenium in Biology and Medicine- Kyoto, Japan
4) FASEB Summer Research Conference- Snowmass Village, Colorado
5) AICR Food, Nutrition, and Cancer Conference, Washington, D.C.
Conferences in 2009:
1) Experimental Biology 2009 (Recipients of the ASBMB Graduate Student Travel Awards: Ujjawal Gandhi and Vivek Narayan)
2) Eicosanoid Research Foundation 2009 (Cancun, Mexico)
Lab Flow Appointments (Please consult with Dr. Prabhu for permission):
- Immunology and Infectious Disease Research Faculty
Regulation of immune function by oxidative stress and antioxidants, including selenium. Regulation of HIV transcription by selenium.
- Molecular Toxicology & Carcinogenesis Research Faculty
Regulation of immune function by oxidative stress and antioxidants, including selenium. Regulation of HIV transcription by selenium.